Claire Corlett

Fish Food, Fish Tanks, and More
Richard Fisher Maniac Lecture, May 25, 2016

Richard Fisher Maniac Lecture, May 25, 2016


-When I was looking at,
uh, Dick’s background, one of the things that caught
my attention was that… I was –was wondering.
1965, he graduated from graduate school,
University of Colorado. And I was wondering,
would he have imagined that more
than 2 1/2 decades later on that he would join NASA Goddard
and work in here? And — and of course, 10 years
later or 11 years later, he would head the heliophysics
division at NASA headquarter. Would he have
imagined that journey? So today, he is going to
walk us through that journey, a very exciting journey. And obviously, his title
is very inspiring, “The Seventh Cycle.” You know, what he needed to know from the Japanese garden
or something like that. So it must be very exciting.
And I’m looking forward to it. So please, with those
few remarks, help me welcome Richard Fisher! [ Applause ] -When, uh, I was
a boy in Kansas, I was occasionally taken
to a museum in a big city. And my parents did this when
they were traveling on business. And it was just heaven —
dinosaurs, Egypt, astronomy. And by the time I was 10, I knew that I wanted
to be in science. Now, this is
a longitudinal average, uh, presented on a monthly basis of sunspot number as a function
of latitude over time. And this is called
the Maunder Butterfly Diagram. And it basically describes
the magnetic variability of the Sun,
although this is a completely non-physical measurement
of magnetism. It’s just –it’s just
a count of sunspots. So this —
this diagram, beginning in 1940 and ending,
sort of, at the present, covers the period
of time of my talk. Now, there’s
an important point. I’m going to have to go
at 45 seconds per year. My job today is do the — My job today is to do
the talking, and yours is to do
the listening. Now, we’re going
to get on beautifully, as long as you don’t
finish before I do. [ Laughter ] I loved it when she laughed,
that was wonderful. I’ve added three other
elements to this. There are three elements
that are solar events. First one was in 1941.
The next one is 1960. And one was more recently. And these are known as GLEs. That’s how people
talk about them. It’s just an acronym that stands
for ground level enhancement. And the one in 1941 was the ground level
enhancement of what? And it was cosmic rays. And it was the first time
that people recognized that activity on the Sun,
a major flare, would create an enhancement
of cosmic rays on the Earth. The other reference,
I’ll explain very briefly. What I needed to know
and learned from the “Secret Teachings In The Art
Of Japanese Gardening.” And David Slawson is a guy I met
at the University of Hawaii, at the East-West Center.
He was a linguist, a translator, a gardener. He’s in charge of
a big department in the UK in terms of food security. And he is also a full professor
at Imperial College. And he had been interested
in the origins of “How Do You Learn Things?” And this is a manual that was written in 1466
by a man named Zoen. And it is, how do you
teach somebody something when you don’t know what
you’re going to need to know? And so this is a model
that I followed. I had a conventional education
for 14 years, through, you know, went to kindergarten, got out at graduate school. And then I spent the next…
[ Chuckles ] if you will, I spent
the next 43 years in the Japanese garden learning what I needed to know
in order to do the job that I currently
had at the time. Okay, so this was
Zoen’s prescription. There were five principles. The first one was that
you can learn by viewing the works of masters,
past masters. That would be a thing
to look at. I mean, look at da Vinci’s
painting and see if you can copy that. The second thing
is learning from nature. Look around you and see
how a brook runs, and you can maybe mimic that. And this issue was how to take
things like stone and water, plantings and create
a piece of art out of it. It’s very esoteric. It has meaning to
the people who are involved. And there isn’t any particular
commercial or economic value, at that time, for it. So it was a specialized
piece of learning. The third thing you could
do was secure an apprenticeship, where you went and studied
with a master. And you stayed with him
for a while. And you learned everything
you could from him. And you did this
with two devices. One of them was just
oral transmission — somebody sits there
and tells you about it. “Don’t open this box until
you’ve put the safety in” or something like that. And then, finally, secret texts. Now, need a word of explanation
about secret texts. Slawson says that that
is a translation of, a literal translation
of, the word. But it really
means “unavailable.” And an example
of availability is that the text itself by Zoen is 11 inches high
and 33 feet long. It’s a big scroll. So you don’t sit down
and flip through it or put it on screens on your,
sequential screens, on your laptop
or anything like that. And the second thing is you have
to be able to read and not everybody
had that availability at that time, universally. So rather than secret,
we could call it… You have to deal
with unavailable, or limited availability,
information. Now, I hope that I’ve given
enough explanation for that. And I’m going to set the scene
for the bulk of my talk. These are, uh, six posters that were produced
and issued in 1958. They were drawn by
a famous illustrator named Herbert Danska. And the National Academy
of Sciences put these out. And in kind of a way,
they sort of parodied the ideas from the Greek world
about what constituted nature. And it was earth, air,
fire, and water. And so they showed us
the parallel of the Earth, the oceans, the poles,
and weather and climate. And sort of continuing
that theme, Danska superimposed
on each of them a little figure
from Greek mythology. This is Boreas,
who’s coming out of the north. He was one of the Titans
who was in charge of wind. And the other guys,
you probably recognize. Now, there are two differences
in these posters. One of them
has to do with space. And in 1957, the first artificial satellite
was launched. It was a tremendously
stimulating event. The world was very excited. It was definitive
in the following sense. People measure time
from before there were artificial satellites and after there were
artificial satellites. So that’s
a major definitive event. And they didn’t have anything
to show on the poster. What are they going to show?
So they just showed a human hand grasping up into the blackness. And so you think about that
when you come to work every day. We’re still grasping,
still grasping. And then there was
the Sun and the Earth. Now, the people
who devised the IGY as an international
collaboration were partially responding
to political, social and moral questions
that science had had to confront during the Second World War. And there was also
a growing recognition that some things
were systems of systems. And it took a different kind
of approach to solve those. [ Clears throat ]
And the guy that I identify, after a little few minutes
on the Internet, is this is probably Prometheus,
who was a kind of a renegade. And he swiped fire
from the king of the gods, Jove, and brought it to humans. And he was duly punished
appropriately for that. But it took us out
of eating raw food and sitting in the dark
all night. And, um, this is…he… Danska used a rounder globular
image to kind of draw everybody into the whole thing,
frame of mind. And in this one,
this is an actual copy of a drawing
made by Joseph Scheiner. It refers to the rotation
of a sunspot in November of 1633. And what it is
is a superimposition of daily drawings
taken at noon. And you can see the sunspot
drifting across the Sun. So this is what I found was
sort of intriguing about these when I was a youngster. [ Clears throat ] Now we begin to the part
where this is my space story. And I have to question — I’m going to bring this
to you as narrative. So whenever you have history
presented to you as narrative, like flying stories or sailing stories
or fishing stories or, you know, stories like that, it’s always from one viewpoint. And so if somebody else
had been there, which we hope you stay away
from that topic, they might have
seen it differently. So I’m going to give you
history as narrative, and this is where
my space story starts. You need to be forewarned
that the difference between space stories and fairy tales
is the following. Space stories always begin, “You aren’t going
to believe this. “I was standing there
in Chris’ office, and he says to me.
He says…” And then he goes on from there. The fairy tales
are a little bit different. They always start out,
“Once upon a time, a long, long time ago
in a galaxy far, far away…” [ Laughter ]
But after that, they’re essentially identical.
So I’ll caution you that way. Now, this is
what got me started. On the 10th of November, 1960, I was trying to remove
an incomplete from my record. I had a physics practicum that I hadn’t finished
the semester before. And I needed to finish it off. And I refurbished
a little telescope. And I made a camera. And at noon, I got one picture. I developed it. And lo and behold,
to my surprise, ’cause you couldn’t look through this thing
in a solar telescope, it had a nice sunspot
sitting there, approximately in focus. And I thought, “I have no idea what I’m going to do with this
to finish the project.” So I hustled around
for a little bit and came up with a measurement
of its diameter, it was about 40,000 kilometers
across. Now, if you were watching
the Internet last week, there was a big sunspot
that was about that size. And it’s something that
happens every once in a while. And I should say,
by the Maunder Butterfly, by the way, I was just
using that as the clock. Whenever you have a physicist
and they see repetitive things like a pendulum
or a quartz crystal oscillating, they’ll try and use it
as a clock. So I have seven ticks
on this solar clock — that’s the illusion. Now, there are some things
I didn’t know. I’m going to give you the space
weather briefing first. Space weather briefing
is as follows. This is the peak
of solar cycle 19, the 19th one since
they started counting. And this is the sunspot number, the integrated sunspot number
over the Sun. And it rose
to a maximum in 1958, which is what people
had hoped for in the IGY. And this was 2 years later.
And there was a big flare on the descending phase
of the solar cycle. Now, there was some stuff
that was unavailable to me. It wasn’t secret knowledge. But it was just
unavailable to me. In the morning of the 12th, before there was
sunrise in Iowa, where I was living,
there was a great big flare. And I have to kind of remind
people that, at those days, the major way of keeping
track of the Sun was not on your desktop
or web or anything. They took a picture a day,
every so often, with a chromospheric camera that got the major features
of the Sun. And this is one made in H-Alpha. It was made off
to the east of us before sunrise in Iowa. And flares in those days came in what you might call a Goldilocks classification. There were little,
bitty bright ones, and those were called class one. And then there
were nice, pleasant, you could kind of deal
with them, medium-sized, pretty bright flares,
and those were called class two. And then there were great,
big ugly suckers that covered
a big fraction of the disc, and they were
bright as could be. And this one was immediately
seen as a class three plus. And that was the best
we could do. There was other knowledge
I didn’t know about. For the IGY, a professor
at the University of Chicago, Simpson was his name, put out 18 things that
were called neutron monitors. And they were essentially
a way of looking at the cosmic ray flux
incident on the Earth. And these had operated
through the IGY. And they were still
operating in 1960. And some of them
still operate today. And what happened
was that a couple hours after the flare
there was a 200% increase in the cosmic ray flux incident
at ground level on Earth. And it was recognized as
ground level event number 10. There were some other things that I hadn’t realized
at the time. And it was about
a decade later, about 1970, that I found out that a chap
from this center, from our center here,
Keith Ogilvie, had been in Fort Churchill
on those days. And it launched
a sounding rocket up into auroral altitudes. And it made a detection
of an increase of a factor of three orders
of magnitude in protons at the auroral height. Now, where these came from
and what their fate was, that was an open question. But I want to call this out
as an ST observation. That means it’s the first. Or it could be the biggest
or the last or anything. But ST measurements have
a special place in my story. Now, I’m going to try
to show you a picture of what I looked like
along the way. And this was with my buddies
on the cross country team at this little Iowa college
that I went to. But what happened was,
with the knowledge that there had been
a big sunspot a few days before and listening
to the, uh, the television news, we were kind of alerted that there may be
the possibility for a big auroral display
on the night of the 13th. And on the 13th, 14th, and 15th, there was one of the biggest
displays of aurora of the 20th century. And the aurora
came way down over — way down over Iowa
and through the Texas border. And I tried to understand this. It was just a really
interesting thing to look at. And I stood outside
for a few hours. And I tried
to be brief about it. I kept a little
leather calendar. Everybody had one of these. And you put your dates
and your exams and your… when school’s out
and things like that to try
and keep track of stuff. And what I wrote was
“15 November, ’60.” “Third night of huge auroral, curtains brighter
than Delta Orionis.” And Alpha Orionis was seen
through it along with Alpha CM. Now, in Iowa as a kid, I thought this was
astronomer talk, so that’s why I used those. I didn’t know any better.
What did I know? And watched from 9 to 11 p.m.
And that was Iowa talk because you could
tell the difference between day and night
if it had a.m. or p.m. in it. And it was cold. And I watched for 2 hours
on the last night. And I wrote a single phrase, which was my only
analysis about this, which was “Have to know
more about this.” And that became
a kind of a mantra, kind of a thing
that went through my head like a popular song
that you can’t get rid of, for about 56 years. [ Laughter ] Back to Danska’s poster. “Have to know more about this.” Well, I was
extremely stimulated. I woke up. And I thought, “I do have to know
more about this. What has happened to me?”
And what happened, I believe, was that I had gotten
partially verbal and partially
non-verbal information that was embedded in a system that was much bigger
than I thought it was. And I thought, “Well, I just…
I really don’t understand this. I need to know more about it.” Now, in Danska’s poster,
there are call-outs, and there was a little brochure
that went along with this. And these are just regions. Nobody knew enough to draw
even a very good cartoon. And think about it,
the solar wind wasn’t discovered for 2 years
after Danska produced this. But there were 10
little inset pictures. And these were mainly IGY assets that were located around
Boulder, Colorado. So this was, in a way,
a kind of recruiting poster that had been organized
by a man named Walter Roberts, who was the head of
the high altitude observatory. And I stepped right in. “I’ll join up. I’m your man.” So I finished school
as quickly as I could. And the next fall,
I started with Walt at the University of Colorado… [ Clears throat ]
Excuse me. …and, uh, began —
began studies. And they were very generous. At that time,
it was post Sputnik. I had a good fellowship,
which I had to do some work for. And I had started school
that September. And in 4 months, I was notified I needed to submit my materials
for an annual review. Well, this is kind of
a little lesson about graduate school. I can see Jim
smiling about this. It’s about what you would expect
from a graduate school. And the instruction from Walter
was in 300 words, on one page, one side
of a piece of paper that was headed for recycle, write down what you’ve done.
And then answer two questions. What you’ve done
for the last year and make an assumption that you’re going
to be 100% successful. And answer two questions. The first one was, “Who will benefit
from your effort?” And the second one was, “What will be
the significance of it?” I think I inverted those,
but those were the questions. And I came to think of this
as the Roberts test. And I’m showing it here
as one of the first lessons that I learned in astronomy
is that you have to have a way of assessing priorities so you don’t waste
your time. You can hear a telephone ring. And that’s got a high priority
because it’s urgent. Answer it.
And it’s a telemarketer. Or it may be that you need
to get another breath of air because you have to have
a certain amount of that to keep going,
and that’s vital. So it’s a way that
I used of making urgent and vital discrimination
in science and in my life,
for the rest of my life. And when I was down
at headquarters, I was listening to some people giving their summary pitch
for proposal. And I kept getting in my head, “So what? Who cares?” And my boss asked me,
“What are you thinking about? Your wheels are grinding.” And I said, “Well, they’re
telling us all this stuff. And I wonder, ‘So what?’
and ‘Who cares?'” So he latched onto that because it’s kind of
insulting to a scientist. You don’t want to ever do that
because it’s… [ Laughs ] [ Laughter ]
It’s demeaning. And so I hope that this
did not go in your vital memory, but I know it did. [ Laughter ] And Ed loved that
the rest of his days he was at headquarters. -[ Man speaking indistinctly ] -The numbers?
The numbers are call-outs that went
with a little pamphlet. And they were just
areas or phenomenon. It was like ionoshpere, aurora, airglow, magnetic field. But no one had any idea
how they fit together. Now, there were people around
that did. The IGY was started
by Van Ellen, Trapman, and Fred Singer. So these were people
who were really interested in the interaction of magnetism
with various things. There was a lot
of forethought. Well, as a graduate student,
like all graduate students, I learned almost nothing
about almost everything. [ Laughter ] And I finished needing
some education. So what I did was I thought, all I want to do is I want to go
to a place that’s starting up ’cause they’ll have
a lot of new problems that’ll be interesting. It’ll be right
on the cutting edge, no heritage,
no back-log of stuff. And I went out to
the University of Hawaii and joined the institute
for Astronomy. I was their fifth employee.
And what I did, since I had a major at CU,
if you will, in eclipses, chronographs and mountaineering, I got a job doing site surveys
on the Hawaiian volcanoes for the big telescopes and building a chronograph
on Haleakala. And I practiced there
for about 5 years. And this is the first picture that I ever got through
a chronograph that I made myself. And what you can see
is a big event on the Sun. This is something
that was called, in those days, an EPL, an erupting prominence
at the limb. We could not see
the disc behind this. So I didn’t know what it
was associated with exactly. And, um, the thing about it was,
the equipment worked. So I was overjoyed.
I mean, I couldn’t believe we’d finally gotten something.
And it was an image from the widest field
of view chronograph that had been
manufactured that date. It was one of the fastest
events ever seen. These fragments are well,
well above escape velocity. They’re leaving the Sun. Not clear what force
is operating there. And finally, it was
the biggest event… “-est,” “-est,” “-est,”
biggest, fastest, biggest field of view,
newest stuff in Hawaii. And this is not a lesson.
But it’s a sidebar, in a sense. I found that the PR people
at the university, and KPOI, the radio station, and KHON,
the NBC television station, they love “-est: stories
about science. It’s something about biggest,
fastest, most dangerous, glorious thing
and just construct. Now, this is true today. And I offer this to to you,
just so you can remember it. So when you see one of those,
you know you can call up headquarters
and get their interest. After I had been at
the University of Hawaii, I followed a path outline
as before. I wanted to see the best
facilities there were ’cause I was tired of working
on our old stuff at Hawaii. And I wanted to study
with the most important people who built those facilities. And at the time, the best
I could do was come up with a man named John W. Evans, who had founded
the Sacramento Peak Observatory, and Richard. B. Dunn,
RB Dunn, Dick Dunn. Dick Dunn had just
finished a masterpiece. It’s a 70-meter vacuum
tower telescope. And I practiced with him
for a number of years. And what I wanted to do
was I wanted to learn how to become a serviceable
optical engineer. And I practiced with him. And I cleaned up his messes.
And I made some of my own. And after a while,
I was a serviceable one, and not brilliant. [ Laughs ]
We wouldn’t use that. But I was a serviceable
optical engineer. I could design with a machine. And I could specify
with drawings. And I could get stuff
manufactured. And I could test it,
so forth and so on. Well, that was my sort of a brief career
at Sacramento Peak. But in 1973, the Air Force,
who owned the place, made a couple of spots available to go on an eclipse expedition
to the longest eclipse, see, there’s
an “-est” word, right, the longest duration eclipse
of the 20th century. And it was just south
of the Somali border in Northern Kenya, kind of a wild place,
and it still is. And I snapped that up
after thinking about it for 4 or 5 seconds,
something like that. And something wonderful happened
just before we left, which was Skylab was launched. And Skylab was damaged
in a launch accident that tore off
the micro-meteorite shield. And it ruined one
of the solar rays. When we got to Africa,
I remember standing there and looking northward at dusk and seeing
a very brilliant Skylab going over with all kinds of —
200 miles behind it, with all kinds
of trash rotating and twinkling. And I thought “Boy, this is bad.
I don’t think this worked.” But we had things
like short-wave radio. And I learned about the rescue.
And I got back. And my boss said “Look,
they found out that this is “really kind of
labor-intensive to run. “They asked me if there was
anybody here at our observatory.” I should mention to you,
our observatory was 36 miles from
Alamogordo, New Mexico. Or the other way
of getting there was 90-some miles from El Paso. So it was not an urban center. And the idea of being remanded to Houston for 9 months
in a real city, after being in Africa, didn’t really sound
so bad for me. So I thought about that
for about 10 milliseconds, and we went.
And I spent 9 months there. Now, the center picture
is back to learning again. I want to talk about this.
When I got there, I knew nothing about Skylab. I knew nothing about
manned space flight. I knew nothing
about flight control. So what they did was took me
very carefully and grabbed me by the scruff of the neck
and dropped me into the flight
control rotation. So I sat with a controller
and watched how he did and what he did
for about 2 weeks. And then they did
the same thing. And this is the ATM simulator. ATM is
the Apollo Telescope Mount. It was a very sophisticated
6-instrument solar observatory that was attached
to the orbital workshop. [ Clears throat ] And nobody had ever seen one
or had one before, so it was operated by humans
like an observatory. And I sat behind
the next flight crewman. I didn’t sit here. This is the simulator
for the ATM. It was built into
their training facilities. And I’d sit behind him on
a little stool that was upright. And I’d look at the plans
that were submitted. And I’d look at what he did. And I gradually began
to understand how you operated the observatory
on a space station. And then I could
participate in things. I want to call your attention,
by the way, to this picture. It’s the picture
that came out of Africa. It’s the solar eclipse. These are made
by scattering photospheric light off of electrons
in the upper atmosphere. And this one has had
the radio — I’m going to say the words. Please don’t worry if you
don’t understand them because I’m not sure
I understand them either. It’s had the radio gradients
suppressed, so you can see the structures. And this was kind of
a first at the time. Well, I was very stimulated. I became convinced that to make
progress in coronal research, we’re going to have
to have access to space, that the high temperature, highly ionized ions
of the corona that radiate in the EUV were just the thing
that you needed to study, if you couldn’t have yourself
an X-ray telescope. And the idea of having 24/7,
which was not possible, but we had very long periods, because of the inclination
of the sky, where we’d have 15, 17 hours. You could see the activity
in the corona much more clearly. So this, again,
just for reference, is the 1973 eclipse picture. This is one that
came down on video about 2 months after
I’d arrived in Houston. And it shows something
that I had never seen before, which was a great big chunk
of stuff coming off a limb. And then we fumbled
with names for a while. Like GLE, there was no name
for that at the time. And it was finally sort of… the literature settled on CME,
for coronal mass ejection. And I thought, “Well, you know,
it would be wonderful if you could have a picture like this every day
of the year.” And lo and behold,
right at the time when I thought
I needed a job pretty bad, the high altitude
observatory said, “Would anybody be
interested in trying to build a ground-based facility that could take
an eclipse picture any time the sky was clear?” And I thought,
“I could do that.” So I got a nice job there. And I worked
for a number of years building an instrument that we placed in Hawaii. And it was a place I had
never site-surveyed before. But there are advantages to it on the active
volcano, Mauna Loa. Now, on any clear day,
you can essentially get an eclipse picture
that looks like this. This instrument’s operated
since 16th February, 1980, or a sequential version
of it has operated. I thought that was okay.
That was very good. Now, as I said,
I was pretty sure they were going to have
to go in space to make progress
in this field. So in 1990, I was — I was… I had an opportunity
to come to Goddard. And it was not
as an optical engineer. And it was not
as a research scientist. It was as a manager of science,
as a branch chief. And I had, at the time, been working
on a rocket payload, which was similar
to the Skylab payload. And my institution
wasn’t confident they were going
to finish it on their own. So they let me
bring it with me. And I’m going to show
two of the several projects I worked on at Goddard
for just summary purposes. This is graduation day
for TRACE, which was a small explorer. And I think, maybe, Joe,
you’re in that picture, probably somewhere in there. I marked myself.
And my part was so big, you can’t even tell
where I was in this thing. It takes a lot of people, a lot of skills to produce
a space adventure. And the outcome of it was that it was
about the same step for solar physics that the Hubble was
for ordinary astronomy. This is an image that was made, where the pixel size
is a half arc second, that’s 730 kilometers
on the Sun. And so we began to learn
more about the texture and the nature
of the magnetically controlled high-temperature atmosphere. This was made in a line
that’s about, uh, a million and a half degrees. Um, the other project
was the SPARTAN-201. And this is not
a graduation day. This is a —
a-a pause in the action. And that’s
the flight-control team for the SPARTAN-201, um, a — these people I worked with for off and on since
the time of Skylabs. It was a long-duration project.
We were in a room in — in Houston, not very far from
where we used to be in Skylab. And the — the controlling, uh,
of the spacecraft was limited. It was a robot
that we put outside with our instruments in it. And it autonomously
recorded its own data. And it, um, uh,
was then recovered, launched on a space shuttle and then recovered, um,
by the flight crew and brought back to Earth
for re –for rehab. Now, I learned
something during this. And I hope everybody can hear
this in the correct spirit. Are we talkin’ about —
about secret texts? But they’re also…
In any institution, there are secret values. I’m gonna — I’m gonna pose
a metaphor for you. Your own son or daughter,
little Algernon or Bathsheba, is gonna start working here
at the center next week. And you know that there’s
something they don’t know. And there isn’t any way
that they’re gonna be able to learn this
except by experience. But they’d really be
better off to know it. And it’s sort of like
handing your — your keys to your firstborn
for the car for the first time, you know, uh, “Let me
tell you somethin’,” uh, whatever you’re gonna say. And, uh, there was a value
which I had not learned because I’d been in
the NSF world of management. The NSF world of management,
uh, is done by grants. And there is no deliverable.
You get a… A truckload of money drives up
and then good luck. And 2 years later, you either have
an instrument or you don’t. And if you don’t, you get
to work on it another year or — or the rest of your life
or whatever. And maybe it makes science,
and maybe it doesn’t. And that’s because the NSF was set up to support
American universities. But — but NASA
has a different mission and a different organization. In every NASA activity,
there is a definitive moment. And you can measure time
before that moment. And you can measure time
after that moment. But the issue of success
only comes after that moment. And that’s when it’s launched ’cause you’re never gonna get
your hands on it again. So what would be
the secret value of Goddard? Well, I thought,
“You probably put on a…” They oughta have this over… If they had a big arch
over the gate, it oughta be on the arch so you
could look up in the morning and go, ‘Ah, yeah.
Ah, yeah. I remember now.'” And I learned it
from a guy named Jim Warr, who was the head of engineering. And he was — he was — he was not being silly
when he told me this. The value is, it’s gotta work. If you’re gonna use
national treasure and — and human lifetime assets, you know, you’ve gotta
take it seriously. You’ve gotta be doin’ things that will make
the mission work and — and not doing things that will
not make the mission work. And everybody works
at that real hard all the time in this area. And I think it gives NASA
a special kind of a bonding. And the people I showed you
on those pictures, to me, have
a special relationship, which is — is, in some ways,
different than a family and some ways similar and, in some ways,
can be much more intense. And –and it’s
very long-lasting. Well, this —
this little value can be, uh, sort of decomposed
into a simple thing like you tell
your kindergartner, “Look left before
you cross the street.” And this is a great one-liner. And it helps the kids
and everything except if you’re in London. And then you maybe
wanna maybe modify here. So there’s — there’s
a little aphorism like this, “Test as you fly
and fly as you test.” And I use this
for all kinds in my life, I mean, motorcycles,
horses, um, everything. Uh, it’s a —
it’s a good rule. And, uh, of course,
there’s a limitation to it. With infinite resources,
you can remove infinite risk. But it’ll be
a long time down there. In 1990, I began working
for a chap named George Withrow, who was the director of the Sun-Earth
Connections Division. And George, um,
and I had, uh, been friends and had known of each other
for many years. We actually ran
against each other in the, uh, 1960, uh, Small College
Cross-Country Championship in Wheaton, Illinois,
and didn’t know that till we started
comparing running stories, uh, like, narrative history, uh, one night at Houston. And George, uh, and George and I
both bought into the idea that the problem
with our science was that they were studying
in such a piecemeal way. There was the ionosphere. There was the magnetosphere.
There was this. There was that.
There was the other. There was solar physics.
And it was quite diffused. And he liked the idea of a — of a –of a —
a bringing together. And I thought that was
a good idea also because I’d gone to the
Astrogeophysics Department now. I’m lookin’ here,
and everybody’s been very kind. And nobody snickered
when I said that. But most of the times,
well, there is — there is a veteran back there. And he’s burstin’ to laughter. Nobody believes that name. It’s not a useful name. And, uh, uh, we’ll get
to that in just a moment. But what are you about in life? What are you about?
Can you say — do –can you perform
the Walt Roberts test quickly with the 19 seconds
that it takes to get from the — is it for zero floor
to the third floor while the administrator’s
on the elevator? And I thought we needed, uh,
a strategic declaration about what our science was about in the Sun-Earth
Connections Division. And so this is an example
of a strategic declaration. It comes in two parts. The first part
is incontrovertibly true. Now, you can hear these
all the time, particularly this year
as an election year. “Taxes are just too damn high.” You know, really? [ Chuckles ]
I never heard that before. And then there’s
a second part, which is a — a matter of, um, what are you
going to do about this? What — what — what — what steps will it be
ameliorating? And what are — what are
your thoughts about a plan? So what I came up with
in 19, uh, in 1989, sorry, 1998, was at the center
of our solar system, there is a magnetic
variable star. And it drives the Earth and the planets
of the solar system. And it sculptures
space itself. Research into the system
has had results of both cultural and intellectual value. And there have been — and — and…
[ Clears throat ] Excuse me. And there have been
both political and economic value results, uh, for life and society
on the Earth. There you are. Uh, have a nice day,
Mr. Golden. And he — and he was
very supportive, by the way. Don’t — don’t take that
as a dismissive mark. Mr. Golden was one
of our biggest supporters. What else do you need? Well, here’s a theory
of science. It’s been offered
by a man named E.O. Wilson. And he — he harkened back to a word that was coined
at the time of Darwin — consilience, the linking
together of principles from different disciplines, especially when forming
a comprehensive study. Now, his belief
is that science can, in fact,
address the problems of life if you can fuse together things
like quantum biology and — quantum biology and neurology
and entomology and so forth and so on, that there are lessons
to be learned from nature. I liked his —
I liked his delivery. I read a book of his.
Uh, and he’s — he’s had two, uh,
two Pulitzer Prizes and and three, I think, down on the “New York Times”
Best Seller List. If this were a class,
I would assign the task of going onto the web,
getting his — his TED Talk because
it’s advice to young scientists. And it’s —
it’s worth — it’s — it’s worth the time
to listen to it. Finally, we’re back to,
what’s in a name? I had a nice advisory committee.
There was — it –it took
a lot of unity to — to construct a new division. And the scientific community was very good
about forming that. And I had some very bright
people telling me what I — they thought
I should do, of course. And, um, I —
I became the director of the Sun-Earth
Connections Division. And one day, uh,
actually, it was a — it was the day
of the Chapman Conference, uh, George Siscoe defined what he thought
a consilience could be. “Heliophysics encompasses
environmental science. “It’s a unique hybrid between
meteorology and astrophysics, “comprising a body of data
and a set of paradigms, uh, “general laws that are mostly
still undiscovered, “specific to magnetized
plasmas and neutrals “in the heliosphere
interacting with themselves and with the gravitating bodies,
uh, and their atmosphere.” Well, what he really
said was, real quickly, is to study the interaction
between the two strong forces: gravity and electromagnetism. And that’s where — where —
where the rubber hits the road. I had a call after
one of these meetings. And it was from,
uh, Mr. Griffin. Now, the administrator
didn’t call me frequency — frequently. In fact, I only got one call
from any administrator ever. And this was
from Mr. Griffin. And he said the following, “Dick, we’re having
a budget meeting here. We have to go to ONB tomorrow. Give me a name
for your division and make sure
it ends with physics. And I need this
right now, right now. But if you’re at a loss, call me back in 10 minutes
’cause we’re ready to go.” So, uh, if anybody ever wondered
why it’s called heliophysics, I think I’ve tried
to explain that. [ Laughter ] I learned one other thing
that was — was — was vital in the sense that it
was required to sustain life. And I got this from, uh, a military historian,
John Keegan, who was a professor
at Sandhurst. And I heard him talk,
uh, in a mall one day. I had to do a lot
of external learning as a government executive. I was not prepared for that.
I shunned courses like, I don’t know what,
sociology, uh, economics. Uh, I –that was all bull
roar as far as I — and here I was,
had to do it for a living. So, um, what Keegan said
was that, for any enterprise, uh, the strategic issues
are the following. There has to be
a noble, robust goal. So let me give you an example. By the year 2030, we want every child
on this planet to have access to 4 liters
of clean water per day. Is there anybody against that?
All right. Let’s see your hands there.
Who is — who is against that? And it’s gonna last
till it happens, whenever that is, whether it’s
2030 or 2050 or never. There has to be
an available resource ’cause, if there isn’t an available
resource, you’re just whistling. You’re just —
you’re just daydreaming. And finally, um, there has to be
a political will within the entity that you’re
embedded in to achieve this. And I took a lot
of other information, attempting to come up with
a strategic management theory for SMD
or with at least heliophysics. And the —
my principle instructors were not only Keegan but a woman
named Elinor Ostrom, who was the first woman
to ever earn a Nobel Prize in economics, uh, a chap named
Howard Boland, uh, who, uh, was an economist, who was also a three-time
university professor. Uh, I got a lot
from Diane Vaughan. And I actually had the chance to talk with her
for an afternoon once. She is a sociologist
that studies organizations and produced a brilliant, uh, exposition of the, uh,
“Challenger” launch accident. And later, uh, I — I began to study
something that is now conventionally
called complexity. It’s — it’s related to chaos
and sometimes referred to as the constructal law
of design. And it’s where you
have multiple agents. They have feedback loops
and dependencies that you can’t —
aren’t fully aware of. And it has the capacity — a system that has the capacity
for self-organization and is sensitive
to initial conditions. So we’re talkin’ things
like stock market, U.S. government, world economy, so forth and so on
’cause that’s — that’s —
that’s the regime we — we…That’s —
that’s what we’re embedded in. This is –this is like
the same light going on saying, “Gee, we’re in a bigger system
than I thought.” Okay. After 10 years,
this is what happened. This is a — a course of time
starting about 2000. This is an —
a conceptual sun shown in 304 as a chromospheric line. This is the Earth shown in — in blue that has, uh, magnetic field lines off of it and a kind of a cartoon of the Earth’s, uh,
magnetosphere. And on it is a yellow,
uh, solar cycle. And their tryin’ to keep time
with the solar cycle, once again. And the little dots
and the squares and the triangles
are missions that NASA has organized to support
the consilience of, uh, of heliophysics. Now there are three on there that are out of
the planetary division. And the reason the are is that
they appeared an early road map, uh, an early decadal survey for, uh, for the Sun-Earth Connections. But they have, in fact,
been carried out. And they have to do
with planetary magnetospheres and ionospheres. So the idea at more years,
uh, for it, I mean, the idea of a consilience spread
to other kinds of things. On the, uh, at the end of,
um, 2011, I retired. And, uh, this is a picture that sort of, uh,
if you couldn’t — if I were giving this,
and I weren’t here, this is what I look like now. This was taken
at the Udvar-Hazy Museum. We went to a little
evening presentation on human risk in space flight. And we’re moving down from where
they served refreshments down to, uh, the auditorium. And the photographer
for the museum said, “Could you step out
on the little balcony? And we’ll take your picture.” And I went, “Duh, okay.” And we –we got
our picture taken. This is in the McDonald
Hall of Space Flight. We’re looking down
at the floor of the hanger. And, um, I can’t give you an ST picture
that I participated in. What I can show you
is the onli-est picture of its kind known to mankind. This is the Goddard
principal investigator. Here is this
five-times-flown spacecraft with the five-times-flown
instruments. Three of those times,
they were delivered on the launch vehicle,
which was nearby. And, um, uh,
these are all — all reusable, stored in flight
condition, multimission, high-mileage
articles available for viewing any day
of the week. In fact, I’d undertaken four separate
educational activities. They usually took
about 9 years: solar physics,
optical engineering, project management
in two institutions and, finally,
as a government executive. I spent about 14 years
in conventional school and about 43 years
in the Japanese garden. Fast forward. It’s 2012.
I’m outta work. I decided I would use the fleet
to study the major activity of, uh, the 24th solar maximum. And so here
is the sis –space — here is the space
situational awareness briefing. The 23rd, uh, sunspot maximum occurred
back over here, about 2004, and, uh, came to a minimum
around 2010 and rose to a maximum
somewhere — somewhere in here. And it was kind
of a fuzzy maximum. In, uh, at the 1st of January,
uh, 2011 till, uh, November of, uh 2014,
the following things occurred. Uh, the —
the evolved fleet that I showed you this
before, uh, allowed continuous, simultaneous multi-viewpoint
remote and insu — in-situ observation
of the Sun, never happened before. RHESSI, Fermi and AMS — AMS-02 provided high-energy, uh, data,
which I was unaware of. Now, there’s another —
another flight-inherent panel, which I’ve just become
aware of lately, which it also adds to it. And then there are a number
of spacecraft that were at — at sites and places which we’d never
had spacecraft before. So what did we find? Well, I used, uh,
these for my little study. Uh, I did it every day,
faithfully downloaded the data. And this is looking down
on the solar system. This is the north
pole of the Sun. And here’s the Earth. And east of the —
east of the Sun is STEREO-B. And west of the Sun
is STEREO-A. So this is startin’ to sound
like a fairy-tale, east of the Sun,
west of the Sun. Yeah.
And at –they all at one point, there was SOHO, WIND, ACE. And then around the Earth, in, um, high
geosynchronous altitude, was SD01 GOES. And then there are three
other low Earth-orbiting, uh, satellites,
which, uh, were, uh, RHESSI, Fermi and — and AMS-02. And with this,
I wanted to take a quick look. I wanted to understand
the global nature of emis– of solar-eruptive activity. So a comment — this was AMS-02. Uh, I’m — I was grateful. In my introduction, a chap
who showed me this is, uh, from Hawaii and is workin’
with me this summer, Brian Yamashiro. And, uh, we found
a number of, um, a number of — of proton events. And these are now
referred to as — as solar —
solar particle events. So every GLE is
a solar particle event. Not every solar particle
event hits the Earth so — and — and for a variety
of reasons. So we could find 21
of these at the time. We finally found 25. There’s another phenomena,
which I was unfamiliar with. Uh, and I first saw — first saw one in 2012. And it’s called a large-scale
chronal-propagating front. Now, I’m gonna
try to show this. There are two images here.
One of ’em is taken from SDO. So this –this is
the Sun-Earth line, right at the center here in SDO. And this is from STEREO-A.
So it’s looking back from — from the west at the surface. And here’s an active region
right about here. And it’ll show up over here,
uh, ’cause we’re — we’re — we’re a third
of the way around the Sun. I’ll see if this is gonna go. Okay. We’re — we didn’t — we didn’t do so good on that.
I’m gonna try this again. Okay. Hold up there, buddy.
There we go. So I’ll show this
frame by frame. You can see where the, um, where the loops are
on the left image. That’s where
the flare occurs. Uh, the temporal resolution
is about 2 1/2 minutes here. There’s, uh, a flare. And there’s a propagation
of a big spherical wave up over
the surface of the Sun. And it blows out over
the surface of the Sun. This is thought to be
a fast-mode magnetohydrodynamic wave. I have not an idea what I…
That’s what I said. That’s what I’ve been told. And it’s super authentic. It’s
— it’s going faster
than the estimated, uh, Alfven speed in that —
in that magnetized atmosphere. This was the 71st, uh,
ground-level event. And it’s the only one
of the current solar cycle. There we go, bang. So that was
an interesting phenomena that we wanted
to incorporate in it. This diagnostic, my wife
calls it the green monster. It’s made with, uh,
it has eight images in it. It is, um, it uses, uh,
10 instruments and three different
positions of the sky. So on –on this level
is the whole sun. This is like the map
we used to look at up at the front of the class
in the third grade. It’s a Mercator projection. And the –these are
the active regions. And –and here
is an active region where there’s going
to be a flare. This is a different line. This is a million
and a half degrees. This is 800,000 degrees. These are differences,
running differences. So, in this picture, you’ll see
what’s different from the — from the previous one.
It’s a way of spotting changes. And then these are
chronograph images at the limb. So the way this movie
is gonna go is you’ll see that
there’s a — a flare here. And you’ll see it
and the differences more easily. You’ll see a large-scale
propagating, uh, chronal front here. And then you can see
the eruption of the chronal mass
ejection off to the side. And we were able to get these
for all 23 events, and, in fact,
find several others that occurred
on the back of the Sun, uh, that were up to 20. So this is one day’s
observations. So this was kinda fun, going through these
and, uh, learning about them. Now, uh, one of the first things
we learned was that ordinary, um, chronal mass ejections, like the one I showed you
from, uh, Skylab, were thought to be
sometimes loops, sometimes, uh, some other
geometrical configuration. These pictures
taken simultaneously from three different places
in the solar system. And what they show,
pretty unambiguously, is that this —
they — there’s dimensionality. They have expansion rates, which are the same latitudinally
and longitudinally and radially. Uh, and so, in some sense, the model that applies
is a sphere expanding. And, if you haven’t
seen this before, these are protons
hitting that detector at SOHO. There’s another
interesting effect, which I won’t go into, which is
that there is a phenomena which was recorded
and has been recorded for years, uh, which is a microwave burst. And they started at —
at — at 1 megahertz. And they drift downwards
to about 10 kilohertz. If you could listen to it,
it’d go… [ Imitates laser sound ]
Like that. And at that low, uh,
at that low frequency, meaning that it’s relatively
high in the atmosphere, uh, it’s thought that the, um, the radiation
is coming from, uh, electrons which have been
stimulated with a shock wave. And we found
an interesting thing, that every solar particle event
has a type-three radio burst with this L-shaped
configuration. And rather than being
20 minutes long, which is the book value, they’re they’re of the order
of 2 or 3 hours long. So that was…And I’m gonna
tell you what I learned. What I learned was that, if you plot these
on the disk of the Sun — These are the 25 SEP events. They occur in the mid-latitudes
where there’s, uh, there’s magnetic activity
and magnetic evolution. The one red dot there
is the ground-level event, ground level 71,
ground-level event 71. And, in terms of viewing, uh,
the limb of the Sun, as seen from the Earth,
is right here on plus 90. And minus 90 is, uh,
is the east limb. And you can see very clearly
that there’s a westward bias. And this tells you,
and immediately, that the large-scale
magnetic field of the Sun is influencing the proton flux
that’s — that’s emitted. And this is –this is something
that was known relatively early but never confirmed
for all events. So here’s the deal.
All EUV flares detected, uh, are associated with,
um, uh, SEP events. Uh, all SEP events generated
a large-scale chronal propagating front
and MHD shock. Uh… [ Clears throat ] Every — every event had a 3-part chronal mass ejection. That means a bright front,
an evacuated area and a — and an eruptive prominence
like the one I showed you from Haleakala. Uh, there was a type-three decametric burst greater
than 2 1/2 hours. And that’s a necessary
and sufficient condition in this data context. How they are related is — is, in my mind,
not entirely clear. But if you detect one, you know for sure
you’ve got the other. And finally, uh, and I think
it’s observational selection. 90% of these HALO CMEs appear to be enveloped by a preceding — preceding large-scale shock. And there’s the westward bias. Well, that brings me to the end
of my career, basically. But I wanna have a reflection
about impermanence. This is dear old Prometheus
making his bad layup shot again while he holds his Earth
in the right hand. And, um, I wanna say that
everything in this cartoon, which is inaccurate,
is insufficient. We didn’t have a clue at that
time what a model was, a descriptive model might be. I also wanted to point out
that the — the facilities that I found
so interesting and drew me so hard towards
the University of Colorado have all vanished off
the face of the Earth. They’re all obsolete.
They’ve all been dismantled. They’re all gone back
to the scrap pile. All the people
in the pictures are gone. The Astrogeophysics Department
has morphed into something else. Astrogeophysics,
if you look it up, uh, is, uh, defined as
the geophysics dealing with material found in space,
uh, the surface and internal properties
of celestial bodies. Well, they don’t mention
electromagnetism anywhere. However, the impulse
for understanding of this kind of system and the system’s dissection
and approach, the consilience, persists and is alive
and well and is very active in NASA.
How could that be? And it brings me
to my last lesson, which you may be able to use. Why is it that we can
maintain this kind of focus and continuity for so long? And I believe there are three,
uh, there are three in — ingredients and a condition. The ingredients
are that something about the activity
builds the cohesion. Uh, I depend on Jim,
and Jim depends on me. We just see each other
in the hall. But I feel funny
if I don’t see Jim. And there is a —
a kind of cohesion that goes through
the entire organization at all levels, three guys
working on a rocket, four people working
on a little satellite, 20 people working on, uh, the thermal test
for the SMEX, uh, 50 people in a SMEX
project group, uh, a thousand people
working on JWST, 20,000 people
trying to make space an important ingredient
for our government. There’s an ethically
consistent leadership. Now, before you snicker,
I-I didn’t say they were morally correct…
[ Chuckles ] or anything like that. Ethics are written rules
that govern conduct. And, um, this is what
I learned from Diane Vaughan, that we have one of the most
ethical organizations there is. Did you ever go
to a review for a proposal? I mean, there are
so many requirements. There’s a whole —
there’s a whole book of ’em. In fact,
it’s secret knowledge. It’s the secret text, 7120.5 You –you –you gotta —
you have to… [ Laughter ]
You have to master it before you’re really able
to play very well. And I didn’t take anything
about 7125 in — in school. And I don’t think — I’m — I’m reasonably confident
that most people don’t. So you have to be
in the context to get it. And finally there’s
the issue of education. No one would have
let me go off and have three
or four apprenticeships. If I’d had to — if I’d had to focus
full-time on a — on a — a single
professional job, it wouldn’t have been
economically possible. But in the NASA environment, they made an arrangement where I could practice
some trade that was valuable. And I’d learn the next one
that I thought I needed to know. And this happens —
these three conditions, happen in NASA at all levels, in all group sizes.
And it happens all the time. And I think we’re extremely
fortunate for that. Back to, uh, Mr. Prometheus
for just 1 second. My reaction to GLE-10
56 years ago was a shift in my consciousness. It was an appreciate
of a reality that had previously
not been integrated to me in my mind
and wasn’t available to me. And the culmination
of that realization was the recognition of a oneness
inside a much larger system, perhaps the universe. “Have to know more about this.” The behavior is, say,
“What you hear, you learn. “What you learn, you practice. And what you practice,
you become.” Well, I became, uh, a sometimes scientist,
satisfactory optical engineer, an adequate science manager, and a surviving
ex-government executive. Uh, that was, uh,
that was what happened. There was a cost in time. I was 18 years in conventional
Western education and 41 years
in the Japanese garden. I aimed at dinosaurs,
Egypt, and astronomy. And what I got was, uh, heliophysics,
Greek mythology, and space. And it was a good deal. “Have to know more
about this…” You notice that
there’s no pronoun. I didn’t say who had
to know more about it. And there’s no object
out here, uh, because I just couldn’t imagine what it was
that I needed to know. As I went through my life,
I gradu– I repeated this so often
that it lost meaning. It’s an imperative.
But it’s also, uh, it’s also a kind of a prayer
and a promise. “Have to know more about this.” And we do. Are there any questions? [ Applause ] -Comments? Uh, questions? -Good.
-Jim. -Uh, I, uh,
disagree on something. -Oh, Jim, I’m just astonished. Wait.
Oh, the shock is so great. Jim and I met — Were you a summer intern? Or were you a graduate student? -Sophomore in college.
-Sophomore in college. And, uh, back in the… [ Speaks indistinctly ]
Observatory. And so, uh, he’s been
wherever he’s been. I’ve been wherever. We both wound up here
for whatever reason. -Well, I don’t think
you’ll mind if I… -Oh, I don’t mind a bit.
Please. -Yes. You know, you were
commenting, uh, about how well all those great facilities
that you built that are gone. All the people are…
Who knows where they are? But that’s not quite true. I mean, Mauna Loa’s
former observatory… -Mauna Loa isn’t in there.
-Oh, it’s great. -Mauna Loa isn’t in there.
It didn’t exist till 1965. -Uh, my point is
you have a legacy there. It’s just doing — doing great.
[ Laughter ] -I don’t know whether
it’s a legacy or a rap sheet. [ Laughter ] You’re — you’re right.
I’m sorry. I mis –I —
I misled you a little bit. Those were the —
those were the AG, uh, assets that were used during the IGY. And — and those are —
are –are — are gone. -Yeah. I’d just like to, uh,
bring up your sense of humor. I think that’s an important
aspect of your impact. And the other thing I have to
say to the organizers of this — I would like to encourage you
to have this type of presentation on heliophysics
in Building 21. [ Laughter ]
-Oh, I could do that. -Brian, when I came to visit
here the last time, I had to sign a little piece
of paper that said, number one, “I promise, honest to gosh,
I won’t try to boss nobody.” [ Laughs ] Second thing was
I promised, honest to goodness, I won’t compete with anybody. And the last one was that — that I’d answer all the
questions they wanted to ask me. And nobody’s ever asked me
any questions. So o –on the basis of that,
I’ll go back and ask, could — could I give this talk again
in Building 21? -…complete your list of
ground-level enhancements, uh, during
your retirement period. There was something
landed on Mars. And these ground-level
enhancement have been measured
there as well. So I think on the order
of five by now. -Well, this is…
I-I take your point. And I thank you
for bringing that up. I went to a conference,
and the first one I ever gone to on ground-level events. And I watched a good,
brisk argument that just stopped short
of a fistfight about — about, “How many ground-level
events have there been?” Because the way you count them and the equipment that you use
is vital in this. And so, uh, I — I sort of expected
somebody might… I didn’t —
I didn’t think about Mars. I thought maybe somebody
would have brought that topic up ’cause you don’t know how many
ground-level events there are. I don’t.
I-I took a list from Noah. And, uh, that was
the best I could. But you’re absolutely right. But I think it…
But it’s interesting. You have to just
stop for a second. And I have to expand
my thinking to other planets. I mean, we’re gonna have
a situation where we could easily
have a section, uh, or a — or a Chapman Conference
or something like that, a summer school
on planetary magnetospheres. There’s enough data now
that you could have something about
rotationally driven and, uh, uh, solar-wind-driven
and things like that. And, uh, so it’s, uh,
it’s an interesting field. Charles, I used up
every word I know. I don’t know any other words.
[ Laughs ] -Yeah. Okay. Cool.
-Uh, last question. Um, what’s the most
interesting question that you still have
that you want to answer? -Oh, nice. I would like to know what
the mechanism is — this — this is the, uh… I think searching
for mechanisms is what — what this field needs. I like to know
what the mechanism is with some great certainty
for the initiation of a process where you have magnetic energy converted into thermal energy
and kinetic energy. Uh, I-I…
That still is a mystery to me. I-I know that Brian knows. Brian’s been researching this
for years. And he has a conference
every year. And they’re fascinating. But I still don’t know
what makes the flare. And –and are
they deterministic? Could you predict one? That would be the useful thing. -Okay. That’s time.
Please, one more. [ Applause ]

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